Outlook password screen pops up and disappears
You could also add a DWORD called DisableADALatopWAMOverride with a value of 1 to the registry in this path: HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Office\16.0\Common\Identity\.
Your next step is to reboot your PC. Open Outlook and check if the issue persists. If it does, remove the registry entry you created earlier and perform a second reboot.